A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back of your lower leg.
A calf muscle strain can be caused by:
- Stretching the calf muscles beyond the amount of tension they can withstand
- Suddenly putting stress on the calf muscles when they are not ready for the stress
- A direct blow to the calf muscles
Factors that increase your chance of developing a calf muscle strain:
- Participation in sports that require bursts of speed. This includes track sports like running, hurdles, or long jump. Other sports include basketball, soccer, football, or rugby.
- Previous strain or injury to the area
- Muscle fatigue
- Tight calf muscles
- Poor conditioning
- Not being ready for the exercise or stress (poor conditioning)
Symptoms may include:
- Pain and tenderness in the calf
- Stiffness in the calf muscles
- Weakness of the calf muscles
- Pain when pushing off the foot or standing on tiptoe
- Bruising on the calf
- Popping sensation as the muscle tears
You will be asked about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your calf muscle will be done to assess the injury.
Images may be needed of the area if severe damage is suspected. Images may be taken with MRI scan or ultrasound.
Muscle strains are graded according to their severity:
- Grade 1—Some stretching with micro-tearing of muscle fibers
- Grade 2—Partial tearing of muscle fibers
- Grade 3—Complete tearing of muscle fibers; this may also be called a rupture or avulsion
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Recovery time ranges depending on the grade of your injury. Treatment steps may include:
Your muscle will need time to heal. A group of actions called RICE is often the main part of treatment:
- Rest—Activities will need to be restricted at first. Normal activities will be reintroduced gradually.
- Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling. Heat or cold may be advised throughout recovery if they provide benefits.
- Compression—Used for a limited time, compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
- Elevation—Keeping the area elevated can help fluids drain out or prevent fluids from building up.
Prescription or over-the-counter medications may be advised to reduce pain.
A physical therapist will assess the muscle. An exercise program will be created to help recovery and to stretch and strengthen the muscle.
To reduce the chance of calf muscle strain:
- Keep your calf muscles strong and flexible, so they can absorb the energy of sudden physical stress
- Learn the proper technique for exercise and sporting activities to decrease stress on all your muscles
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Alan Drabkin, MD
- Review Date: 02/2018 -
- Update Date: 03/18/2013 -